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KMSpico v Mechanics a7da ManyCam Pro3. Wondershare Dr Fone Adobe Illustrator CC In the meantime he had composed three operas that remain his best-known and best-loved: Rigoletto , II trovatore ; The Troubadour , and La traviata His first essay in the new manner, Les Vepres siciliennes ; The Sicilian Vespers , is a rather cold piece that had only lukewarm success from its premiere on.

Boccanegra includes powerful scenes and creates a special windswept atmosphere appropriate to its Genoese pirate protagonist. In Verdi represented Italian musicians at the London Exhibition, for which he composed a cantata to words by the up-and-coming poet and composer Arrigo Boito. The epic-style Forza, includes the most extended religious scene in a Verdi opera and his first substantial comic role. Verdi felt that both operas with foreign commissions required revision for Italian theatres; this he accomplished for Forza in and Don Carlo as it is now usually called in and He needed none with the piece in which at last he fashioned a libretto exactly to his needs, Aida.

Late Years In , while waiting in a Naples hotel for a production of Aida, Verdi wrote a string quartet, the only instrumental composition of his maturity In the same year, he was moved by the death of the Italian patriot and poet Alessandro Manzoni to compose a requiem mass in his honour.

One of the masterpieces in the oratorio tradition, the Manzoni Requiem is an impressive testimony to what Verdi could do outside the field of opera. After the maestro considered himself retired, at long last, from that world of opera to which he had been bound for so many years. The Othello project then took shape, very slowly, on and off, until the opera finally opened at La Scala in In his 74th year, Verdi, stimulated by a libretto far superior to anything he had previously set, had produced his tragic masterpiece.

Yet Ricordi and Boito managed to intervene one more time. This, his last dramatic work, produced at La Scala in , was a tremendous success. Even after Falstaff, Verdi still interested himself in composition. His list of works ends with sacred music for chorus: a Stabat Mater and a TeDeum published, along with the somewhat earlier and slighter Ave Maria and Laudialia Vergine Maria , under the title Quattropezzi sacri Four Sacred Pieces in Brahms was the great master of symphonic and sonata style in the second half of the 19th century He can be viewed as the defender of the Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven in a period when the standards of this tradition were being questioned or overturned by the Romantics.

The Young Pianist and Music Director The son ofjakob Brahms, an impecunious horn and double bass player, Johannes showed early promise as a pianist. He first studied music with his father. Between ages 14 and 16 Brahms earned money to help his family by playing in rough inns in the dock area of Hamburg and meanwhile composing and sometimes giving recitals. In he met Eduard Remenyi, a Jewish Hungarian violinist, with whom 90 Johannes Brahms he gave concerts and from whom he learned something of Roma Gypsy music—an influence that remained with him always.

Schumann wrote enthusiastically about Brahms in the periodical Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik , praising his compositions. The article created a sensation. From this moment Brahms was a force in the world of music, though there were always factors that made difficulties for him. He was therefore drawn into controversy, and most of the disturbances in his personal life arose from this situation. Gradually Brahms came to be on close terms with the Schumann household, and, when Johannes Brahms, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

Such posts provided valuable practical experience and left him enough time for his own work. By he was back in Hamburg, and in the following year he made his first visit to Vienna, with some success; he settled in Vienna in , assuming direction of the Singakademie, a fine choral society.

There, despite a few failures and constant attacks by the Wagnerites, his music was established, and his reputation grew steadily By he was principal conductor of the Society of Friends of Music Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde , and for three seasons he directed the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.

This work, based on biblical texts selected by the composer, made a strong impact at its first performance at Bremen on Good Friday, Brahms was also writing successful works in a lighter vein. In he offered two volumes of Hungarian Dances for piano duet; these were brilliant arrangements of Roma 92 Johannes Brahms tunes he had collected in the course of the years. Their success was phenomenal, and they were played all over the world.

In he composed his Liebeslieder Love Songs waltzes, which were for vocal quartet and four-hand piano accompaniment and incorporated Viennese dance tunes. Some of his greatest songs were also written at this time. Maturity and Fame By the s Brahms was writing significant chamber works and was moving with great deliberation along the path to purely orchestral composition. In he offered the masterly orchestral version of his Variations on a Theme by Haydn.

After this successful experiment, he felt ready to embark on the completion of his Symphony No. This magnificent work was completed in and first heard in the same year. Now that the composer had proved to himself his full command of the symphonic idiom, within the next year he produced his Symphony No. He let six years elapse before his Symphony No.

In its first three movements this work appears to be a comparatively calm and serene composition—until the finale, which presents a gigantic conflict of elemental forces. Brahms took a simple theme he found in J. The composer thanked the university by writing the Academic Festival Overture based on various German student songs.

Brahms remained in Vienna for the rest of his life. He resigned as director of the Society of Friends of Music in , and from then on devoted his life almost solely to composition. He maintained a few close personal friendships and remained a lifelong bachelor.

Final Years In Brahms was inspired to write chamber music for the clarinet. He was a traditionalist in the sense that he greatly revered the subtlety and power of movement displayed by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, with an added influence from Franz Schubert.

First, it had produced a tendency toward rhapsody that often resulted in a lack of structure. Second, it had slowed down the processes of music, so that Wagner had been able to discover a means of writing music that moved as slowly as his often-argumentative stage action.

But Brahms was desirous not of reproducing old styles but of infusing the language of his own time with constructive power. This power of movement stems partly from his reverence for music of the distant past, specifically for the polyphonic school of the 16th century, elements of which he incorporated into his work.

In his orchestral works Brahms displays an unmistakable and highly distinctive deployment of tone colour, especially in his use of woodwind and brass instruments and in his string writing, but the important thing about it is that colour is deployed, rather than laid on for its own sake.

Brahms was peculiarly adapted to the more subtle aspects of the relation between orchestra and soloist, and he set himself to recover the depth and grandeur of the concerto idea. He realized that the long introductory passage of the orchestra was the means of sharpening and deepening the complex relationship of orchestra to solo, especially when the time came for recapitulation, where an entirely new and often revelatory distribution of themes, keys, instrumentation, and tensions was possible.

Brahms also was a masterly miniaturist, not only in many of his fine and varied songs but also in his cunningly wrought late piano works.

As a song composer, he ranged 96 Johannes Brahms from the complex and highly organized to the extremely simple, strophic type. His late piano music, most of which is of small dimension, has a quiet and intense quality of its own that renders the occasional outburst of angry passion the more potent. A German Requiem , one of the choral masterpieces of its period, shows all his characteristics in this field together with an ability to integrate solo and tutti with the same kind of subtlety as in the concerti.

SIR W S. May 29,, Harrow Weald, Middlesex ; b. May 13,, London, Eng. Gilbert began to write in an age of rhymed couplets, puns, and travesty; his early work exhibits the facetiousness common to writers of extravaganza.

As a librettist, Gilbert is outstanding not only because of his gift for handling words and casting them in musical shapes but also because through his words he offered the composer opportunities for burlesquing musical conventions. He was called to the bar in November Sullivan was the son of an Irish musician who became bandmaster at the Royal Military College; his mother was of Italian descent. Sterndale Bennett and Sir John Goss. He continued his studies at the Leipzig Conservatory.

In he became organist of St. Then followed his Kenilworth cantata ; a ballet, Tile enchantee, produced at Covent Garden where Sullivan was organist for a time ; a symphony and a cello concerto; the In Memoriam and the Overturn di Ballo overtures; and numerous songs. Gilbert promptly wrote Dulcamara, or the Little 98 Sir W.

An operetta, the Contrabandista, also on a libretto by Burnand, was produced in the same year. In Gilbert met Sullivan, and they started working together the following year.

Together they created Thespis, or the Gods Grown Old first performance and Trial by Jury , a brilliant one-act piece that won instant popularity and ran for more than a year. By this time, however, relations between the partners had become strained, partly because Sullivan aimed higher than comic opera and because Gilbert was plagued by a jealous and petty nature when it came to financial matters.

Arupture occurred, and the two were estranged until , when they again collaborated, producing Utopia Limited and later The Grand Duke Aside from his work with Sullivan, Gilbert wrote several popular burlesques for the dramatic stage: Sweethearts , Engaged , and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern He also created librettos for other composers; the music for his last opera, Fallen Fairies, or the Wicked World , was by Edward German.

His last play, The Hooligan, was performed in Gilbert was knighted in In Sullivan accepted the principalship of the National Training School for Music later the Royal College of Music , which he held for five years; he was active as a conductor, particularly at the Leeds Lestivals from to He was knighted in Petersburg P yotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is largely regarded as the most popular Russian composer of all time.

His oeuvre includes 7 symphonies, 11 operas, 3 ballets, 5 suites, 3 piano concertos, a violin concerto, 11 overtures strictly speaking, 3 overtures and 8 single movement programmatic orchestral works , Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 4 cantatas, 20 choral works, 3 string quartets, a string sextet, and more than songs and piano pieces. Early Years Tchaikovsky was the second of six surviving children of Ilya Tchaikovsky, a manager of the Kamsko-Votkinsk metal works, and Alexandra Assier, a descendant of French emigres.

He manifested a clear interest in music from childhood, and his earliest musical impressions came from an orchestrina in the family home. At age four he made his first recorded attempt at composition, a song written with his younger sister Alexandra.

Petersburg, a boarding institution for young boys, where he spent nine years. He proved a diligent and successful student who was popular among his peers. At the same time Tchaikovsky formed in this all-male environment intense emotional ties with several of his schoolmates. In his mother fell victim to cholera and died.

At age 17 Tchaikovsky came under the influence of the Italian singing instructor Luigi Piccioli, and thereafter Tchaikovsky developed a lifelong passion for Italian music. In the summer of he traveled outside Russia for the first time, visiting Germany, France, and England, and in October of that year he began attending music classes offered by the recently founded Russian The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time Musical Society.

When St. Petersburg Conservatory opened the following fall, Tchaikovsky was among its first students. Tchaikovsky spent nearly three years at St. Petersburg Conservatory, studying harmony and counterpoint with Nikolay Zaremba and composition and instrumentation with Anton Rubinstein. Among his earliest orchestral works was an overture entitled The Storm composed , a mature attempt at dramatic program music.

He found teaching difficult, but his friendship with the director, Nikolay Rubinstein, helped make it bearable. Petersburg in April In his early operas the young composer experienced difficulty in striking a balance between creative fervour and his ability to assess critically the work in progress. The concerto premiered successfully in Boston in October , with Hans von Biilow as the soloist.

During the summer of , Tchaikovsky composed Symphony No. In November he put the final touches on his symphonic fantasia Francesca da Rimini, a work with which he felt particularly pleased. Although homosexuality was officially illegal in Russia, the authorities tolerated it among the upper classes. This experience forced Tchaikovsky to recognize that he could not find respectability through social conventions and that his sexual orientation could not be changed.

The year saw the beginning of the extraordinary relationship that developed between Tchaikovsky and Nadezhda von Meek, the widow of a wealthy railroad tycoon; it became an important component of their lives for the next 14 years. Agreat admirer of his work, she chose to become his patroness and eventually arranged for him a regular monthly allowance; this enabled him in to resign from the conservatory and devote his efforts to writing music. Thereafter he could afford to spend the winters in Europe and return to Russia each summer.

Early in he finished several of his most famous compositions —the opera Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Eugene Onegin, the Symphony No. From December to August he worked on the opera The Maid of Orleans, which was not particularly well received.

His other major achievements of this period include Serenade for Strings in C Major, Opus 48 , Capriccio italien , and the Overture Final Years At the beginning of , tired of his peregrinations, Tchaikovsky settled down in a rented country house near Klin, outside of Moscow. There he adopted a regular daily routine that included reading, walking in the forest, composing in the mornings and the afternoons, and playing piano duets with friends in the evenings.

At the January premiere of his opera Cherevichki, he finally overcame his longstanding fear of conducting. Moreover, at the end of December he embarked upon his first European concert tour as a conductor, which included Leipzig, Berlin, Prague, Hamburg, Paris, and London. He met with great success and made a second tour in During the winter of , while staying in Florence, he concentrated on his third Pushkin opera, The Ipueen of Spades, which was written in just 44 days and is considered one of his finest.

Later that year Tchaikovsky was informed by Nadezhda von Meek that she was close to ruin and could not continue his allowance. This was followed by the cessation of their correspondence, a circumstance that caused Tchaikovsky considerable anguish. Upon his return to Russia, he completed his last two compositions for the stage —the one-act opera Iolanta and a two-act ballet Nutcracker In February he began working on his Symphony No.

His world stature was confirmed by his triumphant European and American tours and his acceptance in June of an honorary doctorate from the University of Cambridge. On October 21 he suddenly became ill and was diagnosed with cholera, an epidemic that was sweeping through St. Despite all medical efforts to save him, he died four days later from complications arising from the disease. I talian composer Giacomo Puccini in full, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was one of the greatest exponents of operatic realism, who virtually brought the history of Italian opera to an end.

Early Life and Marriage Puccini was the last descendant of a family that for two centuries had provided the musical directors of the Cathedral of San Martino in Lucca. Puccini initially dedicated himself to music, therefore, not as a personal vocation but as a family profession. When Giacomo was five, his father died, and the municipality of Lucca supported the family with a small pension, keeping the position of cathedral organist open for the young Puccini until he came of age.

In the autumn of he went to study at the Milan Conservatory, where his principal teachers were Antonio Bazzini, a famous violinist and composer of chamber music, and Amilcare Ponchielli, the composer of the opera La gioconda. On July 16, , he received his diploma and presented as his graduation composition Capriccio sinfonico, an instrumental work that attracted the attention of influential musical circles in Milan.

In the same year, he entered Le villi in a competition for one- act operas. The music publisher Giulio Ricordi immediately acquired the copyright, with the The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time stipulation that the opera be expanded to two acts.

After the death of his mother, Puccini fled from Lucca with a married woman, Elvira Gemignani. Finding in their passion the courage to defy the truly enormous scandal generated by their illegal union, they lived at first in Monza, near Milan, where a son, Antonio, was born. Beginning with this opera, Puccini carefully selected the subjects for his operas and spent considerable time on the preparation of the librettos. These four mature works also tell a moving love story, one that centres entirely on the feminine protagonist and ends in a tragic resolution.

All four speak the same refined and limpid musical language of the orchestra that creates the subtle play of thematic reminiscences. The music always emerges from the words, indissolubly bound to their meaning and to the images they evoke. The first performance Feb. In , having spent the summer in Cairo, the Puccinis returned to Torre del Lago, and Giacomo devoted himself to Fanciulla. Elvira unexpectedly became jealous of Doria Manfredi, a young servant from the village who had been employed for several years by the Puccinis.

She drove Doria from the house threatening to kill her. Subsequently, the servant girl poisoned herself, and the Manfredis brought charges against Elvira Puccini for persecution and calumny, creating one of the most famous scandals of the time.

Elvira was found guilty but was not sentenced, and Puccini paid damages to the Manfredis, who withdrew their accusations. It was a great triumph, and with it Puccini reached the end of his mature period. Puccini felt the new century advancing with problems no longer his own. He did not understand contemporary events, such as World War I. His last opera, based on the fable of Turandot as told in the play Turandot by the 18th-century Italian dramatist Carlo Gozzi, is the only Italian opera in the Impressionistic style.

Puccini did not complete Turandot, unable to write a final grand duet on the triumphant love between Turandot and Calaf. Suffering from cancer of the throat, he was ordered to Brussels for surgery, and a few days afterward he died with the incomplete score of Turandot in his hands. Turandot was performed posthumously at La Scala on April 25, , and Arturo Toscanini, who conducted the performance, concluded the opera at the point Puccini had reached before dying.

Shortly afterward, Elvira and Antonio were also buried there. The Puccini house became a museum and an archive. May 18,, Vienna, Austria ustrian-Jewish composer and conductor Gustav Ajl Mahler is noted for his 10 symphonies and various songs with orchestra, which drew together many different strands of Romanticism.

Although his music was largely ignored for 50 years after his death, Mahler was later regarded as an important forerunner of 20th-century techniques of composition and an acknowledged no Gustav Mahler influence on such composers as Arnold Schoenberg, Dmitry Shostakovich, and Benjamin Britten. Early Life Mahler was the second of 12 children of an Austrian-Jewish tavern keeper living in the Bohemian village of Kaliste German: Kalischt , in the southwestern corner of the modern Czech Republic.

Shortly after his birth the family moved to the nearby town of Jihlava German: Iglau , where Mahler spent his childhood and youth. As part of a German-speaking Austrian minority, he was an outsider among the indigenous Czech population and, as a Jew, an outsider among that Austrian minority; later, in Germany, he was an outsider as both an Austrian from Bohemia and a Jew.

His father had married a delicate woman from a cultured family, and, coming to resent her social superiority, he resorted to physically maltreating her. In consequence Mahler was alienated from his father and had a strong mother fixation.

The military and popular styles, together with the sounds of nature, became main sources of his mature inspiration. Career as a Conductor The next 17 years saw his ascent to the very top of his chosen profession. From conducting musical farces in Austria, he rose through various provincial opera houses to become artistic director of the Vienna Court Opera in , at the age of The three symphonies of his first period Gustav Mahler were conceived on a programmatic basis i.

The five-movement Symphony No. The even vaster Symphony No. The 10 years there represent his more balanced middle period. His newfound faith and his new high office brought a full and confident maturity, which was further stabilized by his marriage in to Alma Maria Schindler, who bore him two daughters, in and He continued his recently acquired habit of devoting his summer vacations, in the Austrian Alps, to composing, and, since, in his case, this involved a ceaseless expenditure of spiritual and nervous energy, he placed an intolerable strain on his frail constitution.

An exception is Symphony No. At the same time, in dispensing with an explicit program and a chorus and coming near to the normal orchestral symphony, it does foreshadow the purely orchestral middle-period trilogy, Gustav Mahler Nos.

Between them stands the work Mahler regarded as his Tragic Symphony— the. From these three symphonies onward, he ceased to adapt his songs as whole sections or movements, but in each he introduced subtle allusions, either to his Wunderhorn songs or to his settings of poems by Friedrich Ruckert, including the cycle Kindertotenlieder ; Songs on the Deaths of Children.

Afterward he identified these as presaging the three blows that fell on himself The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time in , the last of which portended his own death: his resignation was demanded at the Vienna Opera, his three- year-old daughter, Maria, died, and a doctor diagnosed his fatal heart disease. He was obliged to make a new reputation for himself, as a conductor in the United States, directing performances at the Metropolitan Opera and becoming conductor of the Philharmonic Society of New \”fork; yet he went back each summer to the Austrian countryside to compose his last works.

He returned finally to Vienna, to die there, in The three works constituting his last-period trilogy, none of which he ever heard, are Das Lied von der Erde ; The Song of the Earth , Symphony No. When he afterward began the actual No. This last-period trilogy marked an even more decisive break with the past than had the middle-period trilogy. In the four-movement No.

Growing familiarity with the sketch of No. The five movements of this symphony deal with the same conflict as the two preceding works, but the resignation attained at the end of the finale is entirely affirmative.

Debussy developed a highly original system of harmony and musical structure that expressed in many respects the ideals to which the impressionist and symbolist painters and writers of his time aspired. Early Period Debussy showed a gift as a pianist by the age of nine.

While living with his parents in a poverty-stricken suburb of Paris, he unexpectedly came under the patronage of a Russian millionairess, Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meek, who engaged him to play duets with her and her children. He traveled with her to her palatial residences throughout Europe during the long summer vacations at the Conservatory In Paris during this time he fell in love with a singer, Blanche Yasnier, the beautiful young wife of an architect; she inspired many of his early works.

Middle Period As a holder of the Grand Prix de Rome, Debussy was given a three-year stay at the Villa Medici, in Rome, where, under what were supposed to be ideal conditions, he was to pursue his creative work. Debussy eventually fled from the Villa Medici after two years and returned to Blanche Vasnier in Paris.

At this time Debussy lived a life of extreme indulgence. Other early works by Debussy show his affinity with the English Pre-Raphaelite painters; the most notable of these works is La Damoiselle elue , based on The Blessed Damozel , a poem by the English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Debussy and his librettist, Maurice Maeterlinck, declared that they were haunted in this work by the terrifying nightmare tale of Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher. The style of Pelleas was to be replaced by a bolder, more highly coloured manner.

In his seascape La Mer he was inspired by the ideas of the English painter J. Turner and the French painter Claude Monet. Similarly, he saw that woodwinds need not be employed for fireworks displays; they provide, like the human voice, wide varieties of colour.

Debussy also used the brass in original colour transformations. In fact, in his music, the conventional orchestral construction, with its rigid woodwind, brass, and string departments, finds itself undermined or split up in the manner of the Impressionist painters.

Ultimately, each instrument becomes almost a soloist, as in a vast chamber-music ensemble. Finally, Debussy applied an exploratory approach to the piano, the evocative instrument par excellence. It is certain that he would have taken part in the leading movements in composition of the years following World War I. His life, however, was tragically cut short by cancer. March 28,, Beverly Hills, Calif. C omposer Sergey Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff was the last great figure of the tradition of Russian Romanticism and a leading piano virtuoso of his time.

He The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time is especially known for his piano concerti and the piece for piano and orchestra entitled Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Early Life Rachmaninoff was born on an estate belonging to his grandparents, situated near Lake Ilmen in the Novgorod district. Those musicians featured in this book span hundreds of years, countless musical genres, and immeasurable distances in style, technique, and purpose.

Nevertheless, they have all been, and continue to be, influential. Some are influential because they brought a unique approach to their art that others later followed. Others were leaders of an influential movement in their field—a movement that led future musicians to improvise, change, and ultimately re-create music itself. And still others, through their work, brought about social reform and societal change that has forever shaped the landscape in which we now live.

For these influential people, music was and is life. They devoted their careers to the art, spending countless hours writing, creating, and fine-tuning. They have performed for great crowds, spoken on their beliefs, stood up for just causes, and above all, brought pleasure to the people who have listened.

In doing so, each has left a mark, a stamp of influence, on the world. Educated at the Benedictine abbey at Pomposa, Guido evidently made use of the music treatise of Odo of Saint- Maur-des-Fosses and apparently developed his principles of staff notation there. He left Pomposa in about because his fellow monks resisted his musical innovations, and he was appointed by Theobald, bishop of Arezzo, as a teacher in the cathedral school and commissioned to write the Micrologus de disciplina artis musicae.

The bishop also arranged for Guido to give c. Many of the nth-century manuscripts notated in the new manner came from Camaldolese houses. The fundamentals of the new method consisted in the construction by thirds of a system of four lines, or staff, and the use of letters as clefs. The red F-line and the yellow C-line were already in use, but Guido added a black line between the F and the C and another black line above the C.

No longer was it necessary to learn melodies by rote, and Guido declared that his system reduced the 10 years normally required to become an ecclesiastical singer to a year. Guido was also developing his technique of solmization, described in his Epistola de ignoto cantu. Guido is also credited with the composition of a hymn to St.

John the Baptist, Ut queant laxis, in which the first syllable of each line falls on a different tone of the hexa- chord the first six tones of the major scale ; these syllables, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, and la, are used in Latin countries as the names of the notes from c to a iut was eventually replaced by do.

His device was of immense practical value in teaching sight-reading of music and in learning melodies. Singers associated the syllables with certain intervals; mi to fa, in particular, always represented a half step.

In addition to his innovations Guido also described a variety of organum adding to a plainchant melody a second voice singing different pitches that moved largely, but not completely, in parallel fourths.

He seems to have left Ferrara on the death of the duke in and later became provost of the collegiate church of Notre Dame in Conde. Of the 20 masses that survive complete, 17 were printed in his lifetime in three sets ,, by Ottaviano dei Petrucci. The expressiveness of his music marks a break with the medieval tradition of more abstract music. Especially in his motets, Josquin gave free reign to his talent, expressing sorrow in poignant harmonies, employing suspension for emphasis, and taking the voices gradually into their lowest registers when the text speaks of death.

His motets, as well as his masses, show an approach to the modern sense of tonality In his later works 1 9 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time Josquin gradually abandoned cantus firmus technique for parody and paraphrase. In his chansons Josquin was the principal exponent of a style new in the mid-i5th century, in which the learned techniques of canon and counterpoint were applied to secular song.

He abandoned the fixed forms of the rondeau and the ballade, employing freer forms of his own device. Though a few chansons are set homophonically—in chords—rather than polyphonically, a number of others are examples of counterpoint in five or six voices, maintaining sharp rhythm and clarity of texture. Antonio, the eldest child, trained for the priesthood and was ordained in He made his first known public appearance playing violin alongside his father in the basilica in He became an excellent violinist, and in he was appointed violin master at the Ospedale della Pieta, a home for abandoned or orphaned children.

Printed collections of his trio sonatas and violin sonatas respectively appeared in and , and in his first and most influential set of concerti for violin and string orchestra Opus 3, Lestro armonico was published by the Amsterdam music-publishing firm of Estienne Roger.

He achieved great success with his sacred vocal music, for which he later received commissions from other institutions. Another new field of endeavour for him opened in when his first opera, Ottone in villa , was produced in Vicenza. Returning to Venice, Vivaldi immediately plunged into operatic activity in the twin roles of composer and impresario.

This was the only full-time post Vivaldi ever held; he seems to have preferred life as a freelance composer for the flexibility and entrepreneurial opportunities it offered. Based once more in Venice, but frequently traveling elsewhere, he supplied instrumental music to patrons and customers throughout Europe. Between and he published five new collections of concerti opuses After 21 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time Vivaldi stopped publishing his works, finding it more profitable to sell them in manuscript to individual purchasers.

The French traveler Charles de Brasses reported in with regret that his music was no longer fashionable. In he traveled to Vienna, but he fell ill and did not live to attend the production there of his opera Loracolo in Messenia in The simplicity of his funeral on July 28, , suggests that he died in considerable poverty. Instrumental Music Almost concerti by Vivaldi survive. More than are concerti for a solo instrument with string orchestra and continuo.

Of these, approximately are written for solo violin, 40 for bassoon, 25 for cello, 15 for oboe, and 10 for flute. Vivaldi perfected the form of what would become the Classical three-movement concerto. Perhaps more importantly, Vivaldi was the first to employ regularly in his concerti the ritornello form, in which recurrent restatements of a refrain alternate with more episodic passages featuring a solo instrument.

The fast movements in 22 Antonio Vivaldi his concerti are notable for their rhythmic drive and the boldness of their themes, while the slow movements often present the character of arias written for the solo instrument. Four of them, the cycle of violin concerti entitled The Four Seasons Opus 8, no. Vivaldi also left more than 90 sonatas, mainly for stringed instruments.

Vocal Music More than 50 authentic sacred vocal compositions by Vivaldi are extant. They range from short hymns for solo voices to oratorios and elaborate psalm settings in several movements for double choir and orchestra. Fie composed some 50 operas 16 of which survived in their entirety as well as nearly 40 cantatas.

Moreover, the mutual independence of voices and instruments often anticipates the later symphonic masses ofjoseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. April 14,, London, Eng. A German-born English composer of the late Baroque era, George Frideric Handel—or, Georg Friedrich Handel, as he was known for the first 30 years of his 23 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time life—was noted particularly for his operas, oratorios, and instrumental compositions.

He wrote the most famous of all oratorios, Messiah , and is also known for such occasional pieces as Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks Life The son of a barber-surgeon, Handel showed a marked gift for music and became a pupil in Halle of the composer Friedrich W Zachow, from whom he learned the principles of keyboard performance and composition. In Handel enrolled as a law student at the University of Halle. He also became organist of the Reformed Calvinist Cathedral in Halle but served for only one year before going north to Hamburg.

In Hamburg he joined the violin section of the opera orchestra and also took over some of the duties of harpsichordist; early in he presided over the premiere in Hamburg of his first opera, Almira. Handel spent the years traveling in Italy, where he met many of the greatest Italian musicians of the day. He composed many works in Italy, including two operas, numerous Italian solo cantatas vocal compositions , II trionfo del tempo e del disinganno and another oratorio, the serenata Aci, GalateaePolifemo , and some Latin i.

His opera Agrippina enjoyed a sensational success at its premiere in Venice in Also in Handel was appointed Kapellmeister to the elector of Hanover, the future King George I of England, and later that year he journeyed to England.

Over the next two years his operas IIpastorfido and Teseo were also staged in London. In he became director of music to the duke of Chandos, for whom he composed the 11 Chandos Anthems and the English masque Acis and Galatea , among other works. Another masque, Haman and Mordecai, was to be the effective starting point for the English oratorio. In Handel officially became a British subject, which enabled him to be appointed a composer of the Chapel Royal. Among those of the s were Floridante , Ottone , Giulio Cesare , Rodelinda , and Scipione But Handel went on composing operas until , by which time he had written more than 40 such works.

As the popularity of opera declined in England, oratorio became increasingly popular. Handel first capitalized on this genre in with Deborah and Athalia. In Handel suffered what appears to have been a mild stroke.

After a course of treatment in Aachen Germany , he was restored to health and went on to compose the Funeral Anthem for Queen Caroline and two of his most celebrated oratorios, Saul and Israel in Egypt, both of which were performed in Handel was by this time at the height of his powers, and the year saw the composition of his greatest oratorio, Messiah, and its inspired successor, Samson.

Messiah was given its first performance in Dublin on April 13,, and created a deep impression. Handel now began to experience trouble with his sight. He managed with great difficulty to finish the last of his oratorios, Jephtha, which was performed at Covent Garden Theatre, London, in He kept his interest in musical activities alive until the end.

His choral writing is remarkable for the manner in which it interweaves massive but simple harmonic passages with contrapuntal sections of great ingenuity, the whole most effectively illustrating the text. His writing for the solo voice is outstanding in its suitability for the medium.

Handel had a striking ability to depict human character musically in a single scene or aria, a gift used with great dramatic power in his operas and oratorios. Though the bulk of his music was vocal, Handel was nevertheless one of the great instrumental composers of the late Baroque era.

His long series of overtures mostly in the French style , his orchestral concertos Opus 3 and Opus 6 , his large-scale concert music for strings and winds such as the Water Music and the Fireworks Music , and the massive double concertos and organ concertos all show him to have been a complete master of the orchestral means at his command.

Handel had a lifelong attachment to the theatre — even his oratorios were usually performed on the stage rather than in church. Using these conventions, he produced Italian operas, such as Giulio Cesare ij2y ,Sosarme , and Alcina , which still make impressive stage spectacles. The story line is illustrated by solo recitatives and arias and underlined by the chorus.

With Israel in Egypt and Messiah, however, the emphasis is quite different, Israel because of its uninterrupted chain of massive choruses, which do not lend themselves to stage presentation, and Messiah because it is a meditation on the life of Christ the Saviour rather than a dramatic narration of his Passion.

Foremost of these are the 11 ChandosAnthems. Most of the orchestral music Handel wrote consists of overtures, totaling about 80 in number. Handel was equally adept at the concerto form, especially the concerto grosso. His most important works of this type are the Six Concerti Grossi known as The Oboe Concertos , Opus 3, and the Twelve Grand Concertos, which represent the peak of the Baroque concerto grosso for stringed instruments. The Water Music and Fireworks Music suites, for wind and string band, stand in 28 George Frideric FIandel a special class in the history of late Baroque music by virtue of their combination of grandeur and melodic bravura.

He also wrote various sonatas for one or more solo instruments with basso continuo accompaniment for harpsichord. In addition, he composed more than 20 organ concertos. Early Years J. Ambrosius was a string player, employed by the town council and the ducal court of Eisenach. Although Johann Sebastian started school in or , nothing definite is known of his musical 29 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time The prolific Baroque composer Johann Sebastian Bach, seen here, was also a skilled organist and harpsichordist.

By both his parents were dead, and he was looked after by his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Christoph was the organist at Ohrdruf, and he apparently gave Johann Sebastian his first formal keyboard lessons.

In the young Bach secured a place in a select choir of poor boys at the school at Michaelskirche, Liineburg.

Bach evidently returned to Thuringia late in the summer of , already a reasonably proficient organist and composer of keyboard and sacred music. By March 4, , he was a member of the orchestra employed by Johann Ernst, duke of Weimar and brother of Wilhelm Ernst, whose service Bach entered in When the new organ was completed at the Neue Kirche New Church in Arnstadt, on the northern edge of the Thuringian Forest, Bach helped test it, and in August he was appointed organist—at age The Arnstadt Period At Arnstadt, where he remained until , Bach devoted himself to keyboard music, for the organ in particular.

He did not return to Arnstadt until mid-January During these early years, Bach inherited the musical culture of the Thuringian area, a thorough familiarity with the traditional forms and hymns chorales of the orthodox Lutheran service, and, in keyboard music, perhaps a bias toward the formalistic styles of the south.

But he also learned eagerly from the northern rhapsodists, Buxtehude above all. By he had arrived at a first synthesis of northern and southern German styles.

At Muhlhausen he produced several church cantatas; all of these works are cast in a conservative mold, based on biblical and chorale texts. Cantata No. Bach resigned from his post in Muhlhausen on June 25,, and subsequently moved to Weimar, on the Ilm River. The Weimar Period Bach was, from the outset, court organist at Weimar and a member of the orchestra.

From Weimar, he occasionally 32 Johann Sebastian Bach visited Weissenfels, and in February he took part in a court celebration there that included a performance of his first secular cantata, Was mir behagt, also called the Hunt Cantata BWV On March 2,, Bach became the concertmaster at Weimar; as such, he was charged with composing a cantata every month. His favourite forms appropriated from the Italians were those based on refrain ritornello or da capo schemes in which wholesale repetition—literal or with modifications — of entire sections of a piece permitted him to create coherent musical forms with much larger dimensions than had hitherto been possible.

In 33 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time Kothen, Bach was concerned chiefly with chamber and orchestral music, and it was there that the sonatas for violin and clavier and for viola da gamba and clavier and the works for unaccompanied violin and cello were put into something like their present form. The Brandenburg Concertos were finished by March 24, Bach also found time to complete several cantatas as well as compile pedagogical keyboard works, including the Clavierbuchlein for W.

Bach begun Jan. But after the prince got married—to an apparently antimusical and demanding woman—Bach 34 Johann Sebastian Bach began to feel neglected. At the same time, he began to consider the education of his elder sons, born in and , and his thoughts turned to Leipzig. On Feb. Bach received the appointment, was granted permission to leave Kothen, and was installed in his new position on May Years at Leipzig As director of church music for the city of Leipzig, Bach had to supply performers for four churches: Peterskirche, Neue Kirche, Nikolaikirche, and Thomaskirche.

His first official performance was on May 30, with Cantata No. New works produced during this ye ar include many cant atas and the Magnificat in its first version. John Passion , which was subsequently revised. The total number of cantatas produced during this ecclesiastical year was about 62, of which about 39 were new works.

On June 11, , Bach began a fresh annual cycle of cantatas, and within the year he wrote 52 of the so-called chorale cantatas. Indeed, during his first two or three years at Leipzig, Bach produced a large number of new cantatas, sometimes at the rate of one a week.

Number symbolism, another common device of the Baroque period, also is sometimes pictorial; in the St. After , therefore, he turned his attention to other projects. He did, however, produce the St. Matthew Passion in , a work that inaugurated a renewed interest in the mid-is for vocal works on a larger scale than the cantata; the now-lost St.

From c. For these concerts, he adapted some of his earlier concerti as harpsichord con- certi, thus becoming one of the first composers—if not the very first—of concerti for keyboard instrument and orchestra. About Bach began to produce cantatas in honour of the elector of Saxony and his family, evidently with a view to the court appointment he secured in ; many of these secular movements were adapted to sacred words and reused in the Christmas Oratorio.

On his visits to Dresden, Bach had won the regard of the Russian envoy, Flermann Karl, Reichsgraf count von Keyserlingk, who commissioned the so-called Goldberg Variations ; these were published as part four of the Clavieriibung about , and Book Two of Das Wohltemperierte Klavier seems to have been compiled about the same time. In addition, he wrote a few cantatas, revised some of his Weimar organ works, and published the so-called Schiibler Chorale Preludes in or after In July his improvisations, on a theme proposed by the king, took shape as The Musical Offering.

Anna Magdalena was left badly off. Her stepsons apparently did nothing to help her, and her own sons were too young to do so. She died on Feb. Unfinished as it was, The Art of the Fugue was published in and was reissued in Very few copies were sold, however.

March 31,, Rohrau, Austria—d. May 31,, Vienna ustrian composer Joseph Haydn was one of the most Xjl important figures in the development of the Classical style in music during the 18th century. Haydn early revealed unusual musical gifts, and a cousin who was a school principal and choirmaster in the nearby city of Hainburg offered to take him into his home and train him. The young Haydn sang in the church choir, learned to play various instruments, and obtained a good basic knowledge of music.

His life changed decisively when he was eight years old, when the musical director of St. Thus, in Haydn moved to Vienna. When his voice changed, he was expelled from both the cathedral choir and the choir school. With no money and few possessions, Haydn at 17 was left to his own devices. He eventually was introduced to the music-loving Austrian nobleman Karl Joseph von Furnberg, in whose home he played chamber music and for whose instrumentalists he wrote his first string quartets.

Through the recommendation of Furnberg, Haydn was engaged in as musical director and chamber composer for the Bohemian count Ferdinand Maximilian von Morzin and was put in charge of an orchestra of about 16 musicians.

Esterhazy Patronage Haydn stayed only briefly with von Morzin, and soon he was invited to enter the service of Prince Pal Antal Esterhazy. The Esterhazys were one of the wealthiest and most influential families of the Austrian empire and boasted a distinguished record of supporting music. Prince Pal Antal had an orchestra performing regularly in his 39 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time castle at Eisenstadt, a small town some 30 miles 48 km from Vienna, and he appointed the relatively unknown Haydn to be assistant conductor in While the music director oversaw church music, Haydn conducted the orchestra, coached the singers, composed most of the music, and served as chief of the musical personnel.

Haydn worked well with the Esterhazy family, and he remained in their service until his death. In Haydn became musical director at the Esterhazy court. His ambitious plans were supported by Prince Miklos, who had become head of the Esterhazy family in The prince was a passionate performer on the baryton, and Haydn provided more than compositions featuring this now-obsolete cellolike instrument. Haydn served Prince Miklos for nearly 30 years.

On these visits he developed a close friendship with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The music written then, from the Stabat Mater to the large-scale Missa Sancti Nicolai , would be sufficient to place him among the chief composers of the era. The many operas he wrote during these years did much to enhance his own reputation and that of the Esterhazy court. Other important works from this period include the string quartets of Opus 20, the Piano Sonata in C Minor, and the turgid symphonies in minor keys, especially the so-called Trauersymphonie in E 40 Joseph Haydn Minor, No.

These important quartets quickly set a new standard for the genre. In the mid-i78os a commission came from Paris to compose a set of symphonies. Also about this time, Haydn was commissioned to compose the Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, one of his most admired works.

Haydn gladly accepted this offer, and the two men set off for London in December The 12 symphonies he wrote on his first and second visits to London represent the climax of his orchestral output. Their style and wit endeared the works to British audiences, and their popularity is reflected in the various nicknames bestowed on them—e.

This perhaps prompted him to make a second journey to England in January The principal compositions of his second visit to London were the second set of London or Salomon symphonies Nos. While in London, Haydn reached even greater heights of inspiration, particularly in the last three symphonies he wrote Nos.

Deciding to compose further works in this genre, he obtained a suitable libretto, and, after settling in Vienna and resuming his duties for Prince Esterhazy, he started work on the oratorio The Creation , the text of which had been translated into German by Baron Gottfried van Swieten. The work was planned and executed to enable performances in either German or English; it is believed to be the first musical work published with text underlay in two languages.

The Creation was first publicly performed in and earned enormous popularity subsequently Haydn then produced another oratorio, which absorbed him until An extended poem, The Seasons, by James Thomson, was chosen as the basis for the much shorter libretto, again adapted and translated by van Swieten so as to enable performance in either German or English.

The oratorio 42 Joseph Haydn achieved much success, both at the Austrian court and in public performances although not in London. He also continued to compose string quartets, notably the six Erdody quartets known as Opus After composing his last two masses in and , Haydn undertook no more large-scale works. During the last years of his life, he was apparently incapable of further work. With Haydn and Beethoven he brought to its height the achievement of the Viennese Classical school.

Unlike any other composer in musical history, he wrote in all the musical genres of his day and 43 The ioo Most Influential Musicians of All Time The Mozart family: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart seated at piano with his sister Maria Anna left and his parents, Leopold and Anna Maria in portrait ; oil on canvas by Johann Nepomuk della Croce, c.

His taste, his command of form, and his range of expression have made him seem the most universal of all composers. Two more followed during a stay in The Hague on the return journey K 22 and K 45a. Just a few months later, Mozart was appointed an honorary Konzertmeister at the Salzburg court. The Italian Tours Mastery of the Italian operatic style was a prerequisite for a successful international composing career, and Mozart accordingly visited Italy with his father.

Their first tour, begun on Dec. The third and final Italian journey lasted from October until March The instrumental music of the period around the Italian journeys includes several symphonies a few of them are done in a light, Italianate style , but others tread new ground in form, orchestration, and scale. There are also six string quartets and three divertimentos. Early Maturity Leopold took Mozart to Vienna in , where the newest Viennese music had a considerable effect on the young composer; he produced a set of six string quartets showing fuller textures and a more intellectual approach to the medium.

The year saw the composition of more symphonies, concertos for bassoon and for two violins, serenades, and several sacred works. A period of two and a half years from March began in which Mozart worked steadily in his Salzburg post, now as a salaried Konzertmeister.

During this period he wrote only one dramatic work, but he was productive in sacred and lighter instrumental music. His most impressive piece for the church was the Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento K , which embraces a wide range of styles fugues, choruses of considerable dramatic force, florid arias, and a plainchant setting. The instrumental works included divertimentos, concertos, and serenades, notably the Haffner K They went first to Munich, then to Augsburg.

At the end of October they arrived at Mannheim, where they stayed for more than four months at the musically progressive court of the Elector Palatine. He became friendly with the Mannheim musicians, undertook some teaching and playing, and composed several piano sonatas, some with violin.



Such posts provided valuable practical experience and left him enough time for his own work. Simon, D. Similarly, he saw that woodwinds need not be employed for fireworks displays; they provide, like the human voice, wide varieties of colour.❿